What happened After Karbala | Yazid's Painful consequences
The Events after Imam Husain's Martyrdom
THE TENTS WERE ROBBED
After Imam Husain was martyred, the enemy took all of his belongings, and captured his injured horse. They went towards his tents on their camels and entered the tents of Imam Husain's wife and the rest of the women and started to take whatever they could find. They even took the blankets, which were on Imam Husain's wife, sister and daughters. Shimar bin Zil Jawshan saw that Ali bin Husain, the son of Imam Husain, who was sick at the time, was in the tent . He looked much younger in appearance than he actually was. When Shimar saw him he said, "Kill him also." Humaid bin Muslim stopped him and said "Are you trying to kill little children as well?" When he heard this he stopped himself from killing Ali. This is the same Ali who is well known as Zain-ul- 'Abidin. Zain-ul- 'Abidin and all the women were taken into custody.
Imam Husain's wife, Rubab, her servants Uqba bin Saman and Murkah bin Samama Asdi were still alive. Zain-ul- 'Abidin, Imam Husain's sister and his daughter were also alive, as servants were not killed at the time of war . Shimar got Imam Husain's head and called Khowla bin Yazid and Humaid bin Muslim Asdee and said, "Take this head and go to Kufa and inform Ibn Ziyad that we have cut off Imam Husain's head as he had wished." Night had already fallen when these reached Kufa, the house of the governor was locked.
Khowla took Imam Husain's head to his house for the night. When he reached his house he told his wife that he had brought the head of Imam Husain. His wife said, "People bring back bags of money when they go away, and you have brought into our house the head of the grandson of our Prophet (peace be upon him)? For this reason I am not going to speak to you" He then went into another part of the house and went to sleep. His wife reported that in the morning she saw a light (noor) flickering towards the sky from the tub where Imam Husain's head had been placed, and fluttering white birds were surrounding it. In the morning Khowla took the head of Imam Husain to Governor Ibn Ziyad and presented it to him on a platter. The governor had a small stick in his hand and he tapped it on the teeth of Imam Husain. Zaid bin al-'Arqam, a companion of our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), was present at the governor's house. He said to Ibn Ziyad, "Do not tap your stick on those teeth. I have seen those teeth being kissed by our Prophet (peace be upon him) many times. Today you are hitting your stick on those same teeth" Ibn Ziyad said, "May Allah Most High curse you. If you were not an old man I would have your head cut off as well." Zaid bin Al'Arqam stood up and said "How evil you are, you have martyred the grandson of Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)." Then he turned to the crowd and said "What kind of governor have you appointed that he is killing righteous people, curse on you all and on you Ibn Ziyad that you have made such a big mistake and you are not even ashamed of it."
IMAM HUSAIN'S FAMILY TAKEN TO KUFA
The next day Shimar, who had captured all the women and Zain-ul- 'Abidin and the two slaves, started to move them towards Kufa to bring them in front of Ibn Ziyad. When the women came out of their tents they could see in the distance that in the battlefield all the bodies were covered in blood and some were badly mutilated. They all screamed together and Sayyiduna Zaineb shouted "Ya Muhammad Ya Muhammad (O Muhammad O Muhammad), they have mutilated Imam Husain and he is lying there covered in blood." She repeated the same words again and said, "Your daughters are shackled and prisoned. Your children have been martyred and their bodies are covered in dust." When Sayyiduna Zaineb said this, even the enemy had tears in their eyes.
They were taken to the governor's house in Kufa. Ibn Ziyad pointed towards Sayyiduna Zaineb and asked, "Who is she?" as he did not know who Sayyiduna Zaineb was. He asked two or three times. Someone answered and said, "This is Zaineb, Sayyiduna Fatimah's daughter, the granddaughter of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)." Ibn Ziyad said to Zaineb "I thank Allah Most High that your brother, who was a liar, has been punished." Zaineb said "I thank Allah Most High for giving us birth in the house of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), and for revealing the Holy Qur'an in our house. This world is only for a few days and you are wrong to think that we should be ashamed or embarrassed because in the Hereafter we will be the respected ones, and Allah Most High will punish those who are evil." Ibn Ziyad said, "Did you not see how I killed all your relatives, and how I mutilated their bodies." Zainab could not hold back the tears as she had witnessed these events before her own eyes and she began to weep.
Ibn Ziyad then looked at Zain-ul- 'Abidin and and asked him who he was. He replied, "My name is Ali bin Husain." Ibn Ziyad said, "Has not Allah Most High had Ali bin Husain killed yet?" When no reply came he said, "Why don't you answer me, I heard that Ali bin Husain had been killed." Zain-ul- 'Abidin said "I had a brother called Ali Akbar and the people at Karbala martyred him." Ibn Ziyad started to laugh and said, "Yes Allah Most High had him killed." No one responded to this, so Ibn Ziyad said again, "Why don't you speak?" Zain-ul- 'Abidin said, "Allah Most High has said everyone must die no matter who they are." Ibn Ziyad replied, "Are you from amongst them too?" Then he turned to one of his men and said, "He has grown up now so why don't you kill him." Zain-ul- 'Abidin said, "If you kill me, look at all these women, who are they going to go to Madina with? They have no Mehram other than me who will go with them." Sayyiduna Zainab could not hold her self back and started to cry again and hugged Zain-ul-Abidin and said, "Have your desires not been fulfilled yet? Why do you want to kill my last nephew as well? Do you not want to see any man alive? If you want to kill him then you have to kill me first. If you have any shame then do not kill him as he will go with us as a guardian to Madina." Ibn Ziyad said, "I feel sorry for you but if I had really wanted to kill Zain-ul'Ahbedeen, I would kill both of you."
MARTYR OF ABDULLAH BIN AFEEF
After this Ibn Ziyad ordered that all the people should be gathered together. One person stood up and called all the people and they gathered in the Mosque. Ibn Ziyad stood on the pulpit and gave a speech. In the speech he abused Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, and abused Imam Husain. Abdullah bin Afeef Azdee Waleabee was one of the companions of our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). He was a person who spent much of his time in the Mosque. When he heard this speech and the abuse that Ibn Ziyad was directing towards Sayyiduna Ali, he could not take it and said, " O liar, your father was a liar too, how can you say such evil lies about Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with him. May Allah Most High send His wrath upon you. You have martyred the grandson of the Prophet, and you are talking like you have done a good deed." Ibn Ziyad said, "Bring him to me." Some of his men tried to bring him to Ibn Ziyad and there was a struggle. He ordered more of his men to arrest Abdullah. In the end Ziyad crucified Abdullah in the Mosque and he was also martyred.
PRISONER'S JOURNEY TO SYRIA
After the speech, ibn Ziyad ordered that the heads of Imam Husain, and some of the people who were martyred should be placed on top of long spears and taken around the streets of Kufa so everybody could see what had happened to the people who turned against the government. The next day he called all the women, Zain-ul-'Abidin and the two slaves and asked them to mount the camel's bare backs and shackled everyone. He even made the women remove the veils from their faces so that the people could see them, and sent them all to King Yazid. Before they all arrived there Ibn Ziyad had sent the head of Imam Husain, so that the King could see for himself that he had obeyed his commands.
ZUHAIR BIN QAIS WENT TO YAZID
They were still on their way to Yazid when Zuhair went ahead to meet Yazid. Yazid asked him how he was. He replied, "I have come to you with some good news, Allah Most High has given us victory. Imam Husain and 18 of his close relatives and 60 of his friends and followers came towards Kufa. When we heard this we went to them as we thought they would create trouble; and we told them that either they swear allegiance to Yazid or we would have to go to war with them. They preferred to fight with us rather than compromise, so we had to get ready for war. When the sun came out we surrounded them from all sides. We attacked them with our swords, arrows and spears. They tried to save their lives by running here and there, in the trees, mountains and behind rocks; like pigeons would run if they saw a vulture. I swear by Allah Most High that their running and hiding did not make any difference and did not help them at all. Our sharp swords killed them and their bodies are lying there in the field with no clothes, or shade as we speak. If they have any shade it is the sun's rays and if they have any clothes it is the soil, and the strong winds of the desert are throwing their bodies around. The only people who are looking on them and feeling sorry for them are the wild animals."
When Yazid heard this, his eyes filled with tears and he said, "I would have been pleased with you even had you not killed Imam Husain. May Allah's Most High wrath be upon Ibn Zaid who has done this to him. I swear by Allah Most High that if I were you I would have forgiven Imam Husain, may Allah Most High send his blessings on him." After saying this he became very quiet, and instead of giving him a gift, as it was customary to give the bearer of good news, he turned him away(1).
(1) I ask how Zuhair bin Qais claimed that he had good news for the King when Yazid himself cursed Ibn Ziyad who did all these bad things. And also at a later time Ibn Ziyad admitted that he had done a very bad thing. Zohar hid Imam Husain's bravery and did not mention how courageous he and his followers were. Moreover, he did not mention anything about the three requests Imam Husain had asked for. May Allah Most High have his wrath upon him. Zain-ul'Abidin said, "If the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) saw us would he not release us?" Yazid said "yes he would," Yazid then looked towards the people who were present and said to them
THE FAMILY OF IMAM HUSAIN REACHED SYRIA
Meanwhile the prisoners including the women, Zain-ul'Abidin and the two slaves reached Syria and were taken beforeYazid. Imam Husain's head, which was still on a spear, and all the other heads which were on platters were brought before Yazid. There were a lot of people with Yazid. When Fatimah and Sakeena, the daughters of Imam Husain, saw their father's head they could not hold back and screamed out and cried. After a little while when they had calmed down, they said to Yazid, "Is it fair to make the relatives of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) prisoners?" Yazid said, "Go and look in my house. The women in my house are mourning in exactly the same way that you are mourning." Siyyidia Zainab, Fatima, and Sakeena and the other women went in the palace and saw that all the women were crying and mourning, "Take off the shackles." When they were all bought in front of Yazid, a person called Nu'man bin Bashir Ansar said, "Can you imagine what our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) would have said if he had seen them like this as prisoners?" Yazid said, "You have spoken the truth. He would have been very unhappy." He freed them all and had tents set up for them and gave them clothes and other necessary provisions.
THE FAMILY'S JOURNEY BACK TO MADINA
After a few days they started to make plans to leave for Madina. When they were departing for Madina, Nu'man bin Bashir appointed a pious person and said, "You go with the caravan and guide them in the journey making sure that they do not come to any harm." Yazid compensated them for what had been taken from them and sent them on their way. As they were about to leave Yazid came up to Zain-ul 'Abidin and said, "May Allah Most High's wrath be upon UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, if I were there in his place I would have accepted the requests that your father mentioned, and I would have helped him as much as I could. But what Allah Most High wanted to happen has happened. If you ever require my help, write to me and I will try to fulfil your request.(1)
Yazid then turned to the people who were travelling with them and said they must not be harmed or be given any trouble on the way. Zain-ul 'Abidin, his aunt, his mother, his sisters and the rest of the crowd left for Madina. The guides and the helpers looked after them with respect and fulfilled their every need. They were looking after them so well not only because Yazid ordered them to do so, but also because they knew that these were the relatives of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). In this way the caravan reached Madina and they began to live in Madina in peace.
(1) Yazid was telling Zain-ul 'Abidin and Sayyiduna Zaineb how sorry he was, but it was all a show and a false Sadness. At least he could have removed Ibn Ziyad from his post as governor, and the people who had helped martyr Imam Husain and his followers could have been punished. But he did not do any such thing.
NAMES OF THE PEOPLE WHO WERE MARTYRED IN KARBALA
Sulaiman reports that when Imam Husain was martyred his head and other people's heads were carried on spears towards Ibn Ziyad. The following people were martyred at Karbala, May Allah be pleased with all of them.
Abbas, Jaffer, Abdullah, Uthman, Muhammad, Abu Bak'r, Abdullah, Husain bin Ali, Abu Bak'r, Qasim, Hasan bin Ali, Oun, Muhammad, Jaffer Abdur Rahman, Abdullah, Abdullah bin Muslim, Muhammad bin Abee Sa'id. These are the close relatives i.e. son, brother, and nephews of Imam Husain who were martyred in Karbala.
WHAT HAPPENED AFTER KARBALA?
Yazid changed the governor of Madina from Waleed bin Utbah, to Uthman bin Muhammad. When Uthman bin Muhammad reached Madina, he asked a small number of respected people to go to meet Yazid in Syria. Amongst the people were Abdullah bin Hanzalah, Abdullah bin Abee Amar, Munzeer bin Zubair. When they reached syria, Yazid respected them as a guest is supposed to be respected. He gave Abdullah bin Hanzalah a gift of 100,000 Dirhams, and gave the rest of them 10,000 Dirhams. When this caravan came back to Madina, the people of Madina asked Abdullah bin Hanzalah about the character of Yazid. He replied, "We come from a person who does not practice religion. He drinks alcohol and listens to music." If there were any pious people there, they would gather the people and overthrow him. The people said, "We have heard that Yazid respected you and has rewarded you for your allegiance to him." Abdullah said, "Yes he has, and I have taken the money so that I can buy weapons to fight against him."
Because of this news, the people of Madina removed Uthman bin Muhammad from his post and his officials were prisoned. Abdullah bin Muti was appointed as the new governor. Uthman bin Muhammad wrote a letter to Yazid explaining everything. Upon reading the letter, Yazid prepared an army of 12,000 people and said to them "The people of Madina have broken their allegiance to me and have chosen a new governor, Abdullah bin Muti'. I want you to go there and bring Madina under my kingdom again." He tried to make Umar bin Sa'id, the commander of these 12,000 men but he refused to be in charge. Then he asked UbayduLlah bin Ziyad. His reply was "In the beginning I listened to you and martyred Imam Husain but I do not want to make the same mistake again. I do not want to fight with the people of Madina or become a bad person in the sight of Allah Most High (1)
He then turned to Muslim bin 'Uqbah Murri and said, "Do you want to become a leader of the army?" He agreed and said that he would, and if need be, fight with the people of Madina. They prepared to leave for Madina. Yazid went with them for a while giving guidance on what to do. Burning with rage, Yazid said, "When you reach Madina, tell the people that you will give them three days to re-instate the governor of Madina Make sure you obtain allegiance from them. And remember do not harm Ali bin Husain (who is known as Zain-ul 'Abdin), because he has not taken any step against our government."
(1) The people who say that it was right to kill Imam Husain should read these words very carefully. Why would the person who had martyred Imam Husain say that he had committed a great error. The enemies of Imam Husain should really think hard at this point before saying or making these false accusations and claiming that Ibn Ziyad or Yazid acted lawfully under the Shari'ah.
ALL THE ROADS INTO MADINA WERE BLOCKED
When Muslim bin Uqbah reached Madina, he blocked all the entrances into the city and camped outside, so that noone could come to help the people of Madina. He then sent a messenger to Abdullah bin Muti' and the people of Madina telling them that if within three days they had not agreeed to the terms of the King, he was prepared to go to war with them, and he would take all their possessions.
WAR BETWEEN THE PEOPLE OF MADINA AND THE SYRIAN ARMY
When Abdullah bin Muti' and the people of Madina received the message they replied that they were prepared to go to war. Upon hearing the response of the people of Madina, Muslim bin 'Uqbah attacked Madina with his army and martyred many people. He killed Abdullah bin Muti''s seven sons in front of him and then killed Abdullah bin Muti'. Many people fled the town and went into the hills and others hid in their houses. He ordered his men to take all the possessions the people of Madina. They raped over a 1000 women. A group of the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) were also martyred. They tied their horses in the Mosque (Masjid Nabawi) and allowed them to urinate and defecate inside it. For three days there was no call for prayers and congregational prayers were not said inside the mosque.(1)
(1) Imam Darmi writes that Sa'id bin Musaib, who was a great student of the companions, reported that when he was in the mosque he did not know about the time of the prayers until from the grave of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) he heard the call for the prayer. Darmi chapter Fasaeilun-Nabi (Allah bless him and give him peace) Hafiz Ibn Taymiah writes that like Sa'id bin Musaib heard the call for prayer there are other people who heard the answer of their sallams from the grave of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Kitab Iqtida us Siratal Mustaqeem page 373 by Hafiz Ibn Taimiya
Muslim bin 'Uqbah Murri made everyone pledge allegiance to Yazid. If anyone declined he would have them killed. This tragic event took place during 63 Hijra.
(1) Hafiz Ibn Katheer writes that our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has said that the person who fights with the people of Madina will melt like salt does in water, and the person who scares the people of Madina, Allah Most High will make them scared. And Allah Most High and his angels and the people's curse be upon him. As in this Hadith it mention any one who causes a war with the people of Madina. Some scholars agree that it is permissible to send curse on Yazid. Imam Ibnul Jozee has written a whole book on this and has explained that to send the curse is permissible. But some scholars say people should not, as then some people would send curse on the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Tareek Ibn Katheer chapter on Karbala. This Hadith of Hafiz Ibn Katheer is in Bukahri, and Muslim in the chapter of Hajj.
After the ravage of the popel of, Muslim bin 'Uqbah advanced towards Makkah, as guided by Yazid.
WAR BETWEEN THE PEOPLE OF MAKKAH AND THE SYRIAN ARMY
Muslim bin 'Uqbah gathered his army and ordered them to go to Makkah with him Uqbah died before reaching Makkah. But before his death he had nominated Husain bin Numair as the new leader of the army. Meanwhile when the pious people of Madina found out that the Syrians had gone to Makkah to make war with them, they also left in order to help the people of Makkah. Similarly, people from cities surrounding Makkah also came to help them. Husain bin Numaer reached Makkah and he decided to camp on the outskirts of the city.
Abdullah bin Zubair gathered the people of Makkah and came outside the city, so that he could fight the Syrians. The war started and a lot of people from both sides died. The Syrians attacked ferociously and the Makkans started to disperse, running from the enemy. Abdullah bin Zubear's mule slipped and fell. When the enemy saw this, Musab bin Abdur Rahman bin A'uf and some other people attacked Abdullah bin Zubear. But he was very brave and fought with them for a long time and killed many of them until in the end they ran away from him.
For the next three months the war carried on (Muharram and Saffer) and in the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal, the Syrians started to throw fire balls into Makkah aiming at the Ka'bah so that the people of Makkah who were with Abdullah bin Zubear may be killed. Some of the fireballs hit the Ka'bah, burning the cloth covering it and damaging the walls and roof. The fighting was still continuing in the month of Rabi-ul- Awwal when the news came that Yazid had died. Abdullah bin Zubair was the first to find this out. He asked the Syrians, "Who are you fighting for? Your King has died." They did not believe him but when they eventually found out that he had died, they left Makkah and went back to Syria, and so the war ended.
TAWWABIN (THOSE WHO MAKE REPENTANCE)
Sulayman bin Surad, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, was a companion of our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). He lived in Kufa in the 65th Hijra. He was one of the people who gathered others at his home so they could discuss how to invite Imam Husain to Kufa from Makkah. But when Imam Husain came to Kufa these were the people who then left him.
Five years had passed after the sad event of Karbala, and Marwan was now the King. During his rule, Sulayman bin Surad started a movement called Tawwabin. He started to gather the people and told them that they should repent because they invited Imam Husain to Kufa but then left him to be martyred. He urged people that they should seek revenge against the people who had martyred Imam Husain, his family and his friends. When he started this cause, slowly the numbers grew and people started to join his movement. In no time there were over 17,000 people with him.
He gathered these people together and had a meeting, telling them that UbayduLlah bin Ziyad was personally responsible for the martyrdom of Imam Husain, his family and friends. He proposed that a group of people should leave to kill him immediately.
One member of the group spoke up and said, "Why are we going all that way to kill him when there are a lot of other people living in Kufa who participated in the battle and martyred Imam Husain and his family. Sulaiman bin Surad said that the main culprit was UbayduLlah bin Ziyad who sent the army in the first place, so that is why he should be killed first. After a few more meetings, Sulaiman bin Surad started to make plans for the journey. He originally had over 20, 000 men supporting him but by the time he left there were only 4,000 men with him. On 5th of Rabi-ul-Awwal 65 Hijra, before they left Kufa, Sulaiman bin Surad delivered a speech, full of sorrow and very impassioned, "Do not come with me thinking that there will be something to gain. Our main reason for going is to fight and kill UbayduLlah bin Ziyad and seek revenge for Imam Husain. It might be that they are stronger than us and we may not be able to defeat them. So when you leave Kufa, do so with the intention that you might be martyred." He also said that when they started this movement the people of Basra and the people of Madina had pleged their support but as yet none had come to their aid.
On the way to Syria, they visited Imam Husain's tomb and spent a day and a night in lamentation and prayers. They repented for the great sin that they had committed by inviting Imam Husain to Kufa and then leaving him at the mercy of the cruel enemies. They even wished they had died with him at Karbala. After a few days they left and carried on with their journey and reached a place called Ayn al-Warda. They camped there, as they knew that Ubaydullah bin Ziyad had to pass this place.
The army which UbayduLlah bin Ziyad had with him used to send a group of scouts ahead of them. When this group reached Aiy-nul-Warda, Sulaiman bin Surad's men attacked them and killed some of them that theest of the army desertedthe battlefield. When UbayduLlah bin Ziyad heard this he became very angry and decided to attack Sulaiman bin Surad and his men with the 12,000 soldiers which he had with him at that time.
On 22nd of Jamadi-us-Sani, there was a very fierce battle between the two parties. It went on for three days and a lot of people were killed. In the end Sulaiman bin Surad and a number of his men were martyred and the rest of the group ran away and made their way back to Kufa. While on their way, they met with some people who were coming from Madina to support them. Sulaiman bin Surad's men told them that they were very late since they had lost the battle. They prayed for the martyr and the people of Madina went back to their town and the people of Kufa started to go back towards Kufa.
MUKHTAR BIN ABEE UBAID SAKFEE KAZZAB (LIAR)
Mukhtar lived in Kufa and possessed a jinn (devil), who used to provide him the information which the people did not know. He was in prison when Sulaiman bin Surad and his men went to kill UbayduLlah bin Ziyad. When Sulaiman bin Surad had been martyred in the battle, through his jinn he received the information and told the people what had happened before any news came to Kufa. He also claimed that after the martyrdom of Sulaiman bin Surad he was the leader of the movement. He pledged that he would take revenge on the people who had martyred Imam Husain and his family. He started the same movement from prison and the people slowly started to get back together again. After a short time he was released from prison and the people started to join him in large numbers and eventually, with the help of the people, he removed the governor of Kufa and became the governor, and started to control the towns surrounding Kufa.
He then began to search for the people who had martyred Imam Husain, his family, and his followers. As he found them he had their heads cut off and their bodies burnt. He caught people like Amer bin S'ad, Shimar, Khowla bin Yazid, UbayduLlah bin Ziyad and hundreds more who were in charge of their groups at the time. He had all of them killed. Those who started to flee from the city were also caught and killed, after their death their houses were burnt.
He then went to war with the people of Basra and was killedin the war. Mukhtar did this good work of taking the revenge for Imam Husain his family, and his followers. However, he claimed that an angel or a jinn used to visit him and he used to receive revelation. Some scholars therefore, say that he claimed to be a Prophet and for this reason he is an unbeliever. Other scholars say that he claimed that the angel came to him and foretold him, so he was misled.
5) Examining certain objections raised about Imam Husain
There are a number of objections that the Nawasib and Khawarij raise regarding Imam Husain, and with the help of Allah Most High, I will attempt to answer their questions and refute their claims, Insha' Allah.
Question: If the people and the companions of our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) advised Imam Husain not to travel to Kufa, why did he do so against their counsel?
Answer: To answer this, we can examine the Imam Tabree's book of Tareekh Tahzeeb at-Tahzeeb and Hafiz Ibn Kathir's book, Tareekh Kathir. Imam Tabaree and Hafiz Ibn Kathir both write that the reason the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) told Imam Husain not to venture into Kufa was because they did not trust the inhabitants of Kufa. They also believed that the time was not right to go and accept allegiance from the people of Kufa. However Imam Husain decided to go to Kufa because he had seen the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) in his dream, and the Prophet, (Allah bless him and give him peace) had given him an order to go to Kufa. [Tareekh Ibn Kathir and Tareekh at Tabari chapters on Karbala]
From the above reasoning, it can be deduced that the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) were in no way opposing Imam Husain or the group of people who were to accompany him on his journey to Kufa. The truth of the matter is that they were simply suggesting that the time to go to Kufa was not right.
There are also other factors to take into consideration. The letters and invitations that Imam Husain received from the people of Kufa made him believe that he urgently need to go to Kufa to help the people choose a righteous leader. Imam Husain wanted to obey the commands of Allah and the Prophet, (Allah bless him and give him peace), who have ordered the Muslims not to compromise with those who do wrong and cause anarchy in the land.
Question: If Imam Husain made the correct decision, why did he requested the following three things:
(A) To be allowed to return to Madina,
(B) To be allowed to do Jihad, and finally
(C) To be given permission to meet Yazid so that he could swear allegiance to him.
Answer: Hafiz Ibn Kathir, Imam Tabari and Hafiz Ibn Athir all write that Imam Husain's wife, Rubab, had a servant whose name was 'Uqbah bin Sam'an. Uqbah was not killed in Karbala, (as some suggest) but survived and travelled to Madina with Rubab. He reported that whenever Imam Husain travelled, he was with him. He further commented that he had listened to everthing that Imam Husain had said to the people, and swore by Allah Most High that there were some people who were claiming that Imam Husain had said that he would go to Yazid and swear allegiance to him. 'Uqbah insisted that Imam Husain had never said these words. What he did in fact say was that he should be allowed to go back to Madina and see if the people want Yazid as their ruler or Imam Husain. [Tareekh Ibn Kathir chapter on Karbala Tareekh Tabari chapter on Karbala Tareekh Ibn at Athir chapter on Karbala. By Hafiz Ibn Kathir, Imam Tabari, Imam Ibn Athir.]
I ask if Imam Husain had said that he wanted to go to Yazid so that he could swear allegiance to him, what was the point of the war? Why did he sacrifice the lives of his friends and his family at the battle of Karbala?
Question: Why did none of the companions of our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) accompany Imam Husain when he made the journey to Karbala?
Answer: It is wrong to say that none of the companions went with Imam Husain to Karbala - the companions supported, and encouraged people to join him and later, the companions fought against Yazid and achieved martyrdom. The incident of Sayyiduna Anas Ibn Al-Harith is an illustration of this fact.
Hafiz Ibn Kathir notes from Al-Bukhari that Ibn al-Harith had heard a hadith from the Prophet and while acting upon this hadith, he went to Karbala with Imam Husain. : The hadith reads: "My son will be martyred in Karbala, and whoever is present there at that time should help my son." For this reason, Anas bin Harrith helped Imam Husain and was martyred with him. [Tareekh Ibn Kathir chapter on Karbala by Hafiz Ibn Kathir] [Tareekh al Kabeer biography Anas Ibn al-Harrith by Imam Bukahri]
I mam Dhahabi writes that Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar Ibn al -'Aas, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, encouraged Furzooq [the poet], to go and help Imam Husain. Another important fact was that Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Zubair may Allah Most High be pleased with him, and a group of the Prophet's companions in Madina, and in Makkah, fought against Yazid. [Sayyar A'alam An-Nubala by Imam Dhahabi - chapter about Abdullah bin Umar Ibn al-'Aas ]
Those who feel hatred towards Imam Husain use a quote by Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi to support their point of view. Ibn al Arabi asserted that it was correct to kill Imam Husain according to the Qur'an and Sunna since he had rebelled aginst the government. The quote is found in the Muqaddamah of Ibn Khaldun. We maintain that Ibn al-Arabi was wrong by saying this; and that Ibn Khuldun has not actually verified this quote. We will, with the help of Allah, explain and provide hadith as evidence that Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi held an incorrect opinion. Why was it that when Yazid, Ibn Sa'd and UbayduLlah bin Ziyad heard of Imam Husain's martyrdom, they had said that a grave wrong had been done. How is it that Abu Bakr Ibn al -Arabi says that it was right to kill Imam Husain?
Imam Muslim writes that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said that if any of you should see something bad that is happening, a muslim should stop it with his strength, and if he cannot do it with his strength, then he should try to stop it with his tongue, and if he cannot do it with his tongue, then he should feel in his heart that it is wrong and this is the weakest degree of faith.[Sahih Muslim Kitab al Iman]
Imam Nawawi, while commenting upon this hadith, writes that if the King of the time becomes so evil that it is not possible for the people to tolerate him, it is incumbent upon the righteous people to refrain him from doing injustice and evil deeds. If he resists, then it becomes incumbent upon the people to fight him. This is the interpretation of Imam of the Haramain. [Sharh Sahih Muslim chapter on Iman by Imam Nawawi]
Imam Tirmizi notes that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, "You should never let the fear of others prevent you from speaking the truth," and the Prophet also said "Speaking the truth in front of a wicked King, (or tyrant) is the greatest jihad." [Tirmidhi chapter Fitan]
Imam Husain acted upon the hadith and was martyred as a result of his actions. So we ask, how can it be said that it was permissible to kill Imam Husain according to Qur'an and Sunna?
The enemies of Imam Husain claim that he should not have gone against King Yazid. We say, do they not know that our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has said that it is permissible to take steps against a wicked and evil king - and our scholars have unanimously verified Imam Husain's actions.
Imam Nawawi writes in the commentary of Sahih Muslim that a group of scholars have said it is permissible to fight against a wicked, evil king because Imam Husain, Abdullah bin Zubair, and the pious people of Madina and Makkah fought against Yazid, and the Taba'een fought against Hajajj bin Yusuf
[Sharh Sahih Muslim chapter al-Amarah by Imam Nawawi Hafiz Asqalani has also noted Imam Nawawi's words in his book, Fath al -Bari, chapter on Fitan]
From this we can understand that the steps that Imam Husain took were correct as verified by the scholars of Hadith. Imam Husain provides an example for others to follow; they could use Imam Husain's courage as a model to fight against unjust rulers or Kings.
Hafiz Ibn Kathir and Imam Tabari both write that when Yazid was informed that Imam Husain had been martyred, he himself cursed Ibn Ziyad. At a later stage, when Yazid asked Ibn Ziyad to become a commander of the army that was to be sent to attack Madina, Ibn Ziyad responded to Yazid saying that once before he had made a mistake in killing Imam Husain so he did not wish to make another mistake again. [Hafiz Ibn Kathir Tareekh Katheer, and Imam Tabari, in Tareekh Tabari chapter on attack on Madina]
Again, we see that even when Ibn Ziyad showed remorse at killing Imam Husain, how can Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al Arabi say that killing Imam Husain was correct according to the Qur'an and Sunna?
There are even some people who claim that Imam Husain actually broke the unity of Muslims by opposing Yazid [when everyone had accepted him as Khalif] and his rebelliousness caused a breakaway group to emerge. The answer to this is that it is incorrect to say that everyone had pledged allegiance to Yazid - none of the great companions had accepted Yazid as the ruler of the Muslims, and for this reason Yazid had written a letter to the governor of Madina urging him to make the people of Madina pledge allegiance to him. When Imam Husain was called to the governor's house to swear the allegiance, he asked the governor to call the people the next morning and he would be the first among them to speak. If the people of Madina had pledged allegiance toYazid already, then what was the purpose of calling them the next day? (An opposing view is that it could have been to convinve the people otherwisw.)
Also, the people of Basra and the people of Kufa had not yet accepted Yazid as the true ruler of the Muslims. These factors prove that not all the people and the companions had yet accepted Yazid. So to say that Imam Husain broke the unity of the Muslims is a false allegiation. All that Imam Husain was trying to do, was to make awake the Muslims from the state of apathy to the injunctions of the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah. Imam Husain not only fulfilled the hadith of the Prophet to stand up against an unjust ruler and to speak the truth but he also serves as a role model for future Muslims on how to confront evil or unjust rulers/kings.
SCHOLARS' OPINION ABOUT YAZID
Imam Abu Ya`lah narrated a Hadith from Wazai that Abu 'Ubaid bin Jarrah, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, has said that our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) had said that my "Ummah will remain guided on the Sirat al- Mustaqim until a man called Yazid will appear from the tribe of Bani Ummiyah. He will destroy the king who will lead my Umma on the straight path.
There was once a person present in the company of Sayyiduna 'Umar bin 'Abd al Aziz who mentioned that Yazid bin Mu'awiyah was "Amir al Mu'amineen." When 'Umar heard this, he ordered for that person to receive twenty lashes. What we can observe from this incident is that any individual who respected Yazid (as the one in the above narration clearly did) would be punished for displaying this 'respect' - since 'Umar bin 'Abd al Aziz clearly did not tolerate this. Imam Tabari records that when Imam Husain was martyred and news reached 'Abdullah bin Zubair, he made a speech criticising Yazid's characteristics and praising Imam Husain. He said, "I swear by Allah, that he (Yazid) has martyred Imam Husain, someone who used to spend his nights standing in prayer whereas Yazid spent his nights listening to the music and watching women dancing. Yazid used to drink alcohol in the day whereas Imam Husain kept fast throughout the day. Imam Husain was the rightful leader of the Muslims as he was more God-fearing and noble than Yazid who rather than reciting and listening to the Qur'an listened to music. Imam Husain was more God-conscious than Yazid, as he would immerse himself in the remembrance of Allah, while Yazid would go hunting on horses."
'Abdullah bin Zubair reminded people about the un-Islamic behaviour of Yazid in order to make them realise that by accepting Yazid as the true ruler of the Muslims, they had earned the wrath of Allah and had paved their way to destruction in the Hereafter. (Tarikh-I- Tabari -History of Karbala by Imam Tabari
Imam Bilazuri also notes the comments that Abdullah bin Zubair made upon hearing the news of Yazid's death. He records that Abdullah bin Zubair said that he had been informed that Yazid spent his mornings and evenings in the state of intoxication. [Kitab Ansabul Ashraaf vol. 4 page 21 by Imam Bilazuri]
'Allama Ibn Hazm writes that Yazid was the person who martyred Imam Husain, the companions, the Tabi`in; he also disrespected, insulted and waged a war in the noble cities of Makkah and Madinah and martyred many of the pious people. His abomination went to such an extent that when Yazid's army attacked Madinah, their horses urinated in the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah, and also in Riyad al Jannah (a special place in the Mosque of the Prophet).
At prayer times, no one said the prayers in congregation since they were always disrupted and this repeatedly happened until no one was left in the Prophet's Mosque except Sa'id Ibn Musaib, who pretended to be insane and so was left alone. [Asma al Khulafa biography of Yazid bin Mu'aviyah]
Imam Bukhari records that Abu Huraira was reported to have said that; "I have learned from the Messenger of Allah two different types of knowledge. One is that which I am telling you, whereas with the second type, if I were to tell the people, they would surely cut my head off." In the commentary of this Hadith, Ibn Hajr mentions that the latter type of knowledge that Abu Huraira possessed, was about the names of the tyrant rulers and the periods of their rule.
Sometimes Abu Hurairah would indirectly talk about the aggressors without mentioning their names specifically - for fear of his life. It is interesting to note that Abu Hurairah consistently made supplication to Allah, that he be protected from the 60th year of Hijra and the government of young people. We can clearly see, that this year was also the year of Yazid's ascension to the throne. Allah indeed accepted Abu Hurairah's supplication, and he passed away, one year before Yazid became the ruler. [Fath-ul Bari vol.1 by Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqlanee]
Imam Bukhari narrates a hadith in which the Messenger of Allah said, "My Ummah will be destroyed under the rule of the youth from Quraish." In his commentary, Ibn Hajr writes that this hadith is an indication that one of the young from the Quraish was Yazid. Events unfolded, as the Messenger of Allah had predicted. Yazid became the ruler in 60AH, and died 4 years later. (Fath-ul Bari)
'Allama Ibn Hazm records that when Yazid was the ruler, the Muslims were subjected to many trials and tribulations. In his early years as a ruler, he gave orders to attack Madinah, martyring many companions and pious men who lived there. He martyred Imam Husain, his family and his followers. In Makkah, he surrounded Ibn Zubair and insulted the God-fearing people. Then within a short time, Allah made him taste death. During his father's rule, he took part in the war of Istanbul. (Jamahara Ansaab al-Arab biography of Yazid bin Mu'awiya)
Hafiz Ibn Kathir writes that Yazid would quite often miss his prayers and perform prayers after the time for the prayer had gone, i.e Qada prayer. Ibn Kathir alos notes that Imam Ahmed (Ibn Hanbal) narrates from Abu Sa'id Khudri who heard the Messenger of Allah say that, "after 60 years, there will be (evil) people, who will miss their prayers, and they will do what they believe is right. Soon afterwards, they will be thrown in a part of Hell that is called Gayyei and this is the worst place in Hell." (Tarikh Ibn Kathir)
Hafiz Ibn Kathir and Hafiz Ibn Atheer write that Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, wrote a letter to Yazid saying, "O Yazid your army martyred Imam Husain and the family of Abdul Mutalib who acted as a light showing believers the straight path. They were the shining stars guiding people to the straight path. With your orders, your army left them in the middle of a field and robbed all their belongings. They were killed while they were thirsty, without clothes and were left in the battlefield. The wind covered their bodies with the soil, and insects ate their bodies. Then afterwards Allah Most High sent some pious people who covered them and buried them yet through them you had the rule and the respect that you have had. We cannot be allies as you have made grave errors, and the blood of the family of our beloved Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is dripping from your sword. Now I will take my revenge from you and you should not think that you have been victorious, for one day we will have victory over you. Tarikh Ibn Kathir chapter on Karbala Tarikh Ibn Atheer by Hafiz Ibn Atheer chapter on Karbala
Imam Dhahabi records that Yazid was the enemy of Imam Husain and of the family of the Messenger of Allah. He was described as having a very harsh tongue, an evil mouth, and he swore and drank a lot. At the beginning of his rule, he martyred Imam Husain and his family, and then later during his rule, he publicly killed people. For these reasons, many people have long cursed him. After the tragedy of Karbala, people, including the people of Madina, turned against Yazid. May Allah send his blessings upon those people who turned against him (Yazid). (As Sayyar al 'Alaam an -Nubala)
SUPPORTERS OF YAZID
The people who support and love Yazid present a Hadith that is noted by Imam Bukhari; they attempt to prove that Yazid was a noble and pious person and will enter Paradise. With the help of Allah Most High I will show that this Hadith was not written about Yazid, and there is no proof that he will enter Paradise. The narrators of this Hadith were enemies of Imam Husain and his family and they were the supporters of Yazid and his tribe. For that reason the hadith does not provide an unbiased and impartial proof which can be used in Yazid's favour.
Imam Bukahri writes that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has said that the first group of people from amongst my followers who fights in the battle of Rome (Istanbul) will be granted forgiveness by Allah Most High. When the Muslim fought the battle of Rome in 51 A.H, Yazid bin Mu'awiya was appointed the leader of that Muslim army. In this battle Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Ansari was also martyred while fighting with the Unbelievers. Bukahri Kitabul Jihad chapter Room
This Hadith was for the people who would willingly go to Jihad (war) and were prepared to sacrifice their lives for the sake of Allah Most High. It was not for the people who were be sent by force to participate in that battle. Yazid did not participate in that battle willingly, he was sent to fight by forceby Amir Mu'awiya. Some scholars maintain that this Hadith applies only to those who have not committed any kind of sin which would otherwise prevent them from entering Paradise.
Allahma Ibn Atheer writes that in the 50 Hijra, Sayyiduna Amir Mu'awiya, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, sent an army to Rome and appointed Sufyan bin Au'f as leader of the army and he also ordered his son Yazid to go with the army. Yazid did not obey Amir Mu'awiya and said that he was feeling ill; Amir accepted this excuse and said that he should not go as he was ill. During the war soldiers fell ill due to food shortages. When Yazid heard of this he stated that he had no concern for the plight of the soldiers of Islam, when he was able to enjoy the comforts of his home with his beautiful wife, Umea Kulsum. When Amir Mu'awiya heard what Yazid had said, he called Yazid and ordered him to go where the army was so that he could experience the suffering of the soldiers of Islam. Amir sent a small army of people with him; this small army consisted of many pious people, including Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas, Sayyiduna Ibn Umar, Sayyiduna Ibn Zubair, Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Ansari, and a other pious people; eventually they reached Istanbul, and fought in the battle.
[Tareek-Eh-Kamil Ibn Atheer chapter on government of Amir Mu'awiya stories of the 50 Hijra]
This hadith clearly shows that Yazid did not join the army of Mulsims voluntarily, but he was sent by force. Thus how can it be claimed that he will be rewarded with Paradise?
Their first narrator's name is Yahya bin Hamza. Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqlani writes that Imam Mu'een says he was a Qaddri (from a misled sect). Imam Aajiri says I asked Abu Dawud whether Yahya bin Hamza was a Qaddri and he confirmed that he was. [Tahzeeb ut-Tahzeeb - biography of Yahya bin Hamza]
The second narrator's name is Thur bin Yazid Kelai Himsi. Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqlani writes that Imam Ibn Sa'd said he was a Qaddri, and his grandfather was killed in the war of Siffeen fighting for Amir Mu'awiya. Whenever Thur used to talk about Sayyiduna Ali he used to say that he did not like the person who killed my grandfather. Uthman Darmee notes that he had not seen a person like him who was suspected of being a Qaddri. Ahmed bin Saleh narrated the narration from the people of Syria that Thur was a Qaddri. Imam Uzai used also to say bad things about him. Imam Ibn Hamble says that Thur bin Yazid was a Qaddree. Imam Ibn Mu'een says that Maqhul was Qaddri and later repented, but Thur bin Yazid never repented and remined a Qaddri. Aajiri says that he was a Qaddri and he was exiled from his town. Regarding the second narrator Hafiz Abdur Rahman Ibn Hatim says that Abdullah bin Ahmed Humble says that my father Ahmed Ibn Humble used to say that Thur bin Yazid was a Qaddri.
Tahribut Tahzeeb biography of Soar bin Yazid. Imam Dhahbi writes that Imam Ibn Humble said that Thur bin Yazid was a Qaddri and the people from his town threw him out. Abdullah bin Salim says that the people of Hamas threw Thur out his town and set fire to his house because he used to talk against the faith.
Mizanul A'tidal biography Thur bin Yazid by Imam Zahbee.
We can see that the narrators explaining this narration are from a misled sect and thus was the enemy of Sayyiduna Ali and a firm supporter of Yazid. How then can this narration be used as evidence that Yazid will be granted Paradise?
After reading about Yazid no one can say that Imam Husain should not have opposed Yazid. No one can dare say that Yazid was a righteous and pious person, and that Allah Most High was pleased with him. No one can say that Imam Husain should have given his hand in the hands of Yazid and accept him as the true ruler of the Muslims. Only a person who is against our Prophet's family can make such claim.
SHIMAR BIN ZIL JAWSHAN
Imam Zahabee writes that Shimar bin Zil Jawshan is the person who martyred Imam Husain, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, and Shimar is the person who gave the order to martyr him. Abu Ishaq says when Shimar used to say prayers with us he used to make supplication saying, "O Allah Most High you know that I am a good person, for that reason forgive me." On hearing this I said to Shimar how will Allah Most High forgive you when you have martyred the grandson of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), and you were the one who helped to have him martyred. Shimar said, "What do you know? We could not do anything other than obey the orders of our King. Had we gone against his commands, we would have been treated worse than the donkeys. I say (Imam Zahabee) that there is no justification for this; a king must only be obeyed if he commands good things to be done and must not be obeyed if his wishes are unjust and evil. [Mizanul A'tidal biography of Shimar Ibn Dhil Josan by Imam Zahabee]
I thank Allah that he helped me compile this booklet as nothing is possible without His help and I pray to Him that He accepts my work.
I would also like to thank all the brothers and sisiters who helped me complie this booklet: Ismaeel Fulat translated this booklet from Urdu to English. Shameem Quraishee who revised and upgraded the English grammer. Sister Samina Hanif for her research on footnotes. Muhammad Ammar for the typing of this booklet. Isepcial thank to Hafiz Muhammd Asim for his hard work and time given for this boklet.
I would like to thank Secondly, I would like to thank the people for their donations and hope that Allah gives them all the best of rewards. Inshallah, Allah will reward them in this life and the next. Ameen!!!
I again thank Allah for giving me the courage and strength to compile this booklet for the benefit of others. May Allah, in His Infinite Grace and Mercy, accept this small work.